For all requirements associated with a coating, there is an optimal layer thickness to ensure good gradient and gloss, optimal coloring and opacity as well as good protection against environmental influences and corrosion. If the layer thickness is too high, mechanical-technological properties such as mandrel bending tests, stone impact tests and ball impact tests deteriorate and the cost-effectiveness of the painting process also decreases. For this reason, layer thicknesses are worked out and specified by the paint supplier and quality assurance. These must be regularly checked and documented.
The film thickness is the distance between the surface of the coating and the surface of the substrate. The film thickness is the measurement result, which is obtained from a coating according to an agreed, standardized, precisely described and carefully applied measuring method. 
Figure 1 Figure 1:Film thickness sample
In order to control the process variables during application, it is often desirable to determine the film thickness of the wet film. The determination of the wet film thickness is advantageous for systems whose dry film thickness can only be measured destructively. The wet film thickness measurement is a quick and easy test. With the help of the technical information of the paint manufacturer, the dry film thickness can be predicted approximately with the following calculation:
Liquid paint film in µm x Solid content
Dry film = ----------------------------------------------------
As a basis, paint systems can be classified as follows.
The measured wet layer thickness of 80µm corresponds to a dry layer thickness of:
|Paint System||Solid Content||Dry film thickness|
|LS Low SOlid||<50%||<40µm|
|MS Medium Solid||<60%||<48µm|
|HS High Solid||<70%||<56µm|
|UHS Ultra High Solid||>70%||>56µm|
Depending on the shape and measuring range of the surface to be tested, wet layer measurements are carried out with different devices.
2.1 Wet Film Thickness Gauges with notches
The measuring comb can be used on flat surfaces and for a wide variety of substrates. In the case of slight curvatures, it should be checked that the coating thickness gage can be placed parallel to the axis of curvature. Before use, make sure that the teeth of the measuring comb are clean and undamaged. The measuring comb is placed vertically on the measuring surface and lifted vertically again. The coating must be given enough time to wet the teeth of the measuring comb. With the first wetted tooth, the wet layer thickness is read on the scale. The measurement must take place as soon as possible after the application of the paint, so that not too many solvents have already evaporated. [1, 8]
In the process with the measuring wheel, the wheel must be wetted by the coating material. The disc-shaped measuring instrument is unrolled onto the wet and freshly applied layer of paint. In this case, two rollers move on the paint base, while the eccentrically arranged the measuring rib is only wetted at the point of paint. The rotational speed of the wheel should be uniformly slow to give the coating time to wet. The wet film double wheel, also called Inmont wheel, is a proven standard measuring device in the coatings, printing inks and processing industries. Three instrument models with a total of 12 measuring ranges are available for a range of coating materials. The accuracy is ± 2.5 µm or 2.5% of full scale. [1, 8]
Figure 2 Figure 2: Comb Gage skala
Figure 3 Figure 3: Comb Gage
Figure 4 Figure 4: Gauges with wheels
Figure 5 Figure 5: Gauges with wheels prinzip
The determination of the dry film thickness can be carried out non-destructively or, for example in the case of multi-layer systems, destructively.
In order to be able to check the layer thickness on different substrates (metal, wood, plastic, etc.) or to check the single layer thickness of multi-layer systems, a simple method with different cutting tools can be used.
With specially manufactured cutting tools, a small incision is made in the coating. A V-shaped cut is created through the coating to the substrate. Each of the precision cutting edges has two bevels with different angles of inclination (see Table 1). Since the inclination of the cut is known, the horizontal width over the entire bevel (from the substrate to the top edge of the coating) is a measure of the layer thickness. In order to precisely determine the width of a' (b'), which is proportional to the layer thickness a (b), LED illumination and a microscope with 50x magnification are integrated in the byko-cut measuring device. [1, 3, 5]
Maximum Film thickness
|1 unit of scale corresponds to layer thickness||Accuracy in µm|
|Thickness Cutter 1, 2000 byko-cut||45°||2000 µm (80 mils)||20 µm (1,0 mils)||40|
|Thickness Cutter 2, 1000 byko-cut||26,5°||1000 µm (40 mils)||10µm (0,5 mils)||20|
|Thickness Cutter 3, 200 byko-cut||5,8°||200 µm (8 mils)||2 µm (0,1 mils)||4|
|Thickness Cutter 100, byko-cut||3°||100 µm (4 mils)||1 µm (0,05 mils)|
|Thickness Cutter 3000, byko-cut||56°||3000 µm (120 mils)||30 µm (1,5 mils)|
The angle is determined by the sample plane.
For layer thicknesses below 15 µm, the accuracy is +/- 1.5 µm.
The dial gauge is usually used for higher paint layer thicknesses, for example for heavy corrosion protection with zinc dust paint.
For measuring, the coating must be removed at the measuring point (a scratch stylus 1mm is well suited), set the zero point of the device on the calibration plate (glass plate). Then place the dial gauge vertically on the exposed area and read. 
Figure 6 Figure 6: byko-cut blade
Figure 7 Figure 7: byko-cut Chip carving (V-Cut)
Figure 8 Figure 8: byko-cut
Figure 9 Figure 9: Dial gauge
For this purpose, electronic measuring devices are used that measure and digitally display the layer thickness of insulating coatings on non-magnetic, metallic substrates (NFe) and of non-magnetic coatings on steel or iron (Fe). Two different measuring principles are used:
• Magneto-inductive measurement on Fe substrates such as steel and cast iron
• Eddy current measurement on NFe substrates such as aluminum, copper, brass, non- magnetic steel, bronze, magnesium, zinc
When measuring, make sure that at least 3 measuring points are distributed on the sample. On wood at least 10 measuring points. The measurements should not be located directly at the edge and should have sufficient distance to each other. [1, 2,4, 6, 7]
Figure 9: Uniform distribution of measuring points the sample width - not near the edges and plate ends
Examples of insulating and non-magnetic coatings: paints, plastics, enamel, chrome, copper, zinc, powder coatings, galvanic coatings, rubber, hard chrome plating, injection metal, ceramics
Figure 10 Figure 10: Uniform distribution of measuring points the sample width - not near the edges and plate ends
This allows non-magnetic coatings such as paints, plastics, enamel, chrome, copper, zinc, powder coatings, galvanic coatings, rubber, hard chrome plating, injection metal, ceramics to be tested on magnetic substrates.
This method is based on the use of two magnetic coils whose magnetic field is altered by approaching a ferromagnetic substrate. The magnetic field change depends on the distance of the probe to the substrate and thus on the layer thickness. The second coil absorbs the magnetic current. This magnetic coupling between the two magnetic poles is a measure of the layer thickness. Electromagnetic induction uses alternating magnetic fields produced by a ferromagnetic coil.
The magnetic field can be influenced by the following factors:
• Geometry of the substrate (curvature, thickness)
• Material properties of the substrate (e.g. conductivity, pretreatment)
• Roughness of the substrate
• Other magnetic fields (residual magnetism of the substrate, external magnetic fields)
The thicker the coating, the weaker the induced measurement signal. The coating must be designed in such a way that the contact of the device on the surface of the measured value is not distorted and does not leave dents/attachment marks. [1, 2,4, 6, 7]
Figure 11 Figure 11: byko-test 9500
This method is used for the measurement of non-conductive layers (NFe) on non-ferromagnetic base metal (NFe), such as aluminum.
The eddy current method is based on the principles of electromagnetic induction. Through a high-frequency alternating current, a magnetic field is built up in a coil of fine wire, which changes its direction according to the applied alternating current. If the probe is brought close to a conductive carrier, eddy currents are generated in this carrier, which act back on the magnetic field of the coil. The size of the feedback depends on the nature of the carrier and the distance – and thus the layer thickness – between the probe and the substrate. [1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9]
Figure 12 Figure 12: byko-test
Figure 13 Figure 13: Eddy current method
The PELT Gauge transmits an ultrasonic signal through one or more coated layers by placement of an ultrasonic transducer on the sample to be measured. A liquid couplant, such as water, is used to facilitate the transmission of the signal into the coating materials. As the signal crosses an interface between two adjacent layers, an echo is generated. Layer thickness is determined by the time difference (time of flight) between successive layer boundary echoes.
This advanced technology can be used to effectively monitor coating uniformity and for verification that applied coatings are within specification. Since measurements are quick and easy, more locations per part can be measured and the number of parts tested can be increased. The supplied Windows application software manages data transfer, displays the RF wavefrom, and allows ultrasonic waveform analysis. Optional Microsoft Excel-based reporting software allows visualization of thickness data in customized formats.
Figure 14 Figure 14: Funktion 1 Substrat, 2 E-coat, 3 Filler, 4 Base coat, 5 Clear coat
Figure 15 Figure 15: Display and instrument
Figure 16 Figure 16: Software evaluation points
Figure 17 Figure 17: Host-PC-Software Measuring
The sample to be tested must be free of dirt and cooled to room temperature. Changes in the environment such as temperature, humidity, altitude and intensity of surrounding electromagnetic fields can lead to measurement errors. The measuring instrument must also be calibrated regularly according to the manufacturer's instructions. 
On rough surfaces, the result of the paint layer thickness measurement can be falsified, depending on whether the probe is placed on a tip or in the valley of the roughness profile. In general, layer thickness measurement for rough surfaces only makes sense if the layer thickness is at least twice as high as the roughness peaks. It is recommended to perform a multiple measurement (at least 3) in order to be able to form a safe average. 
Figure 18 Figure 18: Measuring on rough surfaces
Measurement errors often occur due to the shape of the test piece. With curved surfaces, the proportion of the magnetic field passing through the air changes. For example, if a measuring instrument was calibrated on a flat sheet, a measurement on a concave surface would lead to a decrease – on a convex one to increased result. The errors can add up and give distorted results of the actual layer thickness. 
Figure 19 Figure 19: Measuring on curved surfaces
In all measuring methods, the substrate surface is touched by a part of the measuring instrument. The test method used must be suitable for the coating surface, wet, dry, injurious or non-damaging and the substrate, hard, soft, metallic or non-metallic. 
In general, the agreement between the measuring combs and the measuring wheels is good because they are insensitive to smaller film differences in the paint layer thickness, i.e. the step intervals of the measuring comb and measuring wheel are relatively large.
The accuracy and precision of the wet layer thickness measuring method depends on the method of paint application and the time when the measurement is performed. Some paint systems quickly lose volatile solvents during spray application, which can falsify the measurement result. [1, 8]
|Process (destructive)||Substrate||Evaluation via||Precision/ Accuracy|
|IG clock / dial gauge||All but hard and not deformable||Scala||+/- 10 % for layer thicknesses <20 µm |
Minimum 5 measurements at the same location with a maximum difference of 2 µm
|Wedge cut byko-cut||But all flat and at least twice as big as the wedge cut||Measuring microscope with illumination and scale||The byko-cut measures with an accuracy of +/- 1.5 µm at 15 µm layer thickness.|
Minimum 3 different wedge cuts and 2 measurements per wedge cut.
For some shades, it is helpful to apply a contrast marker with a black or white marker. Through which is scratched to the substrate, in order to then be able to read the value more easily with the microscope. 
Accuracy and precession is primarily dependent on device type and is affected by the type of calibration, substrate thickness and alloy. Information on the repetition limit and precision are provided by the manufacturer. [1, 2, 4, 6, 7]
A good reference product is the byko-test 8500 with the following accuracy:
• 0-2000 µm: ± (1 µm +2%)
• >2000 µm: ± 3.5 %
 DIN EN ISO 2808 Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness
 DIN EN ISO 2178 Non-magnetic coatings on magnetic substrates
 DIN 50986 Determination of dry-film-thickness using the wedge-cut method.
 DIN EN ISO 2360 Specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness
 ASTM D4138 Standard Practices for Measurement of Dry Film Thickness
 ASTM B499-09 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thicknesses by the Magnetic Method: Nonmagnetic Coatings on Magnetic Basis Metals
 BS 3900-C5 Methods of test for paints. Index of test methods
 ASTM D4414 Standard Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages
 DIN 5411-3 Terminations for steel wire ropes - Safety - Part 3